Today, our blog will introduce you to Kim Cotton, the UK’s first surrogate mother. Sometimes referred to as the UK’s first commercial surrogate mother, having agreed to carry the baby of an anonymous couple for £6,500 in 1984. Kim made history when she gave birth to baby Cotton on the 4th of January 1985. Following a whirlwind of public backlash and negative press coverage, the law around commercial surrogacy changed only six months later with the introduction of the Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985. Kim Cotton had not expected the level of scrutiny that followed.
Inspiration struck Kim after watching a television programme on surrogacy, igniting her desire to help infertile couples and earn money whilst at home with her own children. In many ways, the surrogacy was a win-win situation for both Kim and the anonymous couple. However, public and journalistic opinion did not always agree with the ethical implications tied to surrogacy, with newspaper headlines such as “Born to be sold”, “No better than prostitution”, and “Sold for carpets and curtains” Even some of my colleagues recounted how Kim was vilified by the media. The Standard newspaper ran with the heading ‘Ban This Trade in Babies’ and six months after the birth of baby Cotton the Surrogacy Arrangement Act of 1985 was introduced. With the introduction of this Act, commercial surrogacy and advertising surrogacy was prohibited.
Regardless of the scrutiny she faced, Kim became a staunch advocate for surrogacy and even helped another couple have a baby after her initial surrogacy experience. Kim’s second surrogacy was for her friends, and it could not have been more different. The process behind this surrogacy was far more intimate with the parents this time being present at the birth, Kim felt the event to be much more joyful and fulfilling than the initial anonymous surrogate birth. Between her two surrogate births, in 1988, Kim established Childlessness Overcome Through Surrogacy (COTS), which is a non-profit organisation dedicated to helping people through surrogacy. Through this organisation, over 1000 babies have now been born through surrogacy, including a small number born to same-sex couples.
As the first surrogate mother, Anita Corbin looked for Kim Cotton to include in her project called First Women. Corbin interviewed Cotton for her project and had the following to say about Kim:
“I had to do quite a lot of detective work to find Kim Cotton, Britain’s first surrogate mum, eventually I tracked her down via her business of finding replacement china pieces for broken dinner sets. Kim was very modest and reticent about being part of First Women UK as she felt she hadn’t achieved in the same way as other ‘firsts’ I am so pleased that I managed to persuade her to allow me to come and photograph her at home in 2014. She was welcoming and warm and full of encouragement for my project, loving and giving. It was an emotional session as she told me of her two experiences of surrogacy and how they couldn’t have been more different, the first painful and upsetting and the second an uplifting and joyous birth and handover. I remember clearly how moved I was on hearing her talk of the ‘Gift of Life’ the ultimate gift, how it motivated her and made her determined to make surrogacy acceptable in the UK.“
Kim has expressed her hopes for the future of surrogacy in a British Medical Journal article, stating that she feels the ideal situation would be to allow all surrogacies, free or commercial, and those should be monitored to ensure the safety and wellbeing of all involved. Kim concludes that ‘Whichever method they choose, the benefits experienced by all parties after the successful birth and handover of a long awaited surrogate baby are immeasurable.’
Writing for BioNews in 2019, Kim Cotton stated
“I have always felt that the generosity of spirit that motivates a surrogate mother to help another couple experience the joys of parenthood is second to none. Not a clandestine affair but a beautiful way for a child to be born amidst the love of the participants. The relationships forged often become lifelong friendships, as it should be. None of this would be possible without the incredible resilience that infertile couples demonstrate when they embark on their incredibly daunting journey to parenthood. I have nothing but admiration for their bravery.I feel privileged to work in this field.”
First Women is now in its final week at the Wardlaw Museum and Laidlaw Music Centre, St Andrews. Come along to see more Kim Cotton and more inspirational women until Sunday 8th of January 2023.
First Women UK by Anita Corbin: 100 Portraits of 100 First Women to celebrate 100 years of women’s right to vote, created by photographer Anita Corbin over a decade and launched in 2018.
Blog post by Alisha MacKenzie, Visitor Services Supervisor.
A portrait of Janice Long is currently on display as part of the First Women exhibition currently showing at the Laidlaw Music Centre and Wardlaw Museum, University of St Andrews. the first woman to host her own daily show on BBC Radio 1 and first woman to present Top of the Pops, Janice has been described by many as a “Trailblazer” for women in broadcasting. This description comes not only because of these achievements but also in how, throughout her career she has paved the way for women to become influential in the music scene.
Beginning her career on BBC Radio Merseyside in Liverpool in 1979 Janice featured the local music scene in Liverpool on her show Streetlife, championing emerging bands such as Echo and the Bunnymen, The Teardrop Explodes and Frankie Goes to Hollywood. Following an interview she carried out with fellow DJ Paul Gambuccini she was recommended to BBC Radio 1 and by 1982 had her own show on Saturday evening. She quickly moved to a regular Monday – Thursday show from 1984 therefore becoming the first woman to host a daily show on the station. Along with fellow DJ John Peel, Janice became seminal in helping to promote new talent and was influential in helping new artists with their breaks in the music business. Artists like The Charlatans and later Amy Winehouse and Adele benefited from support from Janice in their early careers. With her infectiously warm and friendly outlook Janice was able to find emerging talent and set them up with sessions before many other DJs had heard them and in doing so became a mentor for many artists throughout her years as a broadcaster.
Following her earlier work on Radio 1 Janice moved on to set up other radio shows and stations including Crash FM in her native Liverpool and latterly was hosting a show on BBC Radio Wales. Her presence during many unforgettable moments throughout the history of pop and rock music throughout her life has been remembered by so many people. She was on the pitch with Midge Ure at Wembley Stadium when the Live Aid event was announced, she was also a judge for the Mercury Music Prize and a patron of the Liverpool Institute of Performing Arts founded by Sir Paul McCartney.
Fellow DJs such as Jo Whiley credit Janice as a trailblazer – paving the way for women to forge careers in broadcasting. As a teenager in the 1980s I will always remember listening to Janice’s show in the evenings and hearing her interviewing current and emerging artists – many of whom along with myself were really shocked and saddened to hear of her untimely death on Christmas Day 2021. Following the news that she had passed away after a short illness musicians and broadcasters flocked to social media to share their condolences with Janice’s family. Always remembered by so many as a funny, approachable and warm person she is a dreadful loss to the world of broadcasting and I will always be grateful to her for introducing me to fantastic music and artists whom I still enjoy travelling to see live today.
When speaking to Photographer Anita Corbin during the installation at the Wardlaw Museum, she spoke warmly of Janice and of how she was so supportive of the exhibition and came along to open the show when it ran in St George’s Hall, Liverpool in June 2019. Following Janice’s untimely death last year an interview was published that she had given the First Women team during 2019. There she speaks openly and honestly about being a woman in the male dominated world of music and broadcasting. What strikes me most about Janice, and I think this is why she’s been such a role model for me, is that she didn’t ever feel the need to play down her feminine qualities in order to be influential and successful. In the 1980s feminine qualities such as empathy and gentleness were seen weaknesses holding back women from succeeding. Janice was always her true self and that is what made her unique at the time and a fabulous role model for women.
I had really hoped when this exhibition was being planned for the University of St Andrews that Janice might come and visit perhaps giving a talk and I could have told her this in person. Sadly that won’t come to pass but I hope this is a fitting tribute to her from a lifelong fan.
First Women UK by Anita Corbin.100 Portraits of 100 First Women to celebrate 100 years of women’s right to vote, created by photographer Anita Corbin over a decade and launched in 2018.
Cathy Cruickshank is the Retail and Operations Officer for Museums at the University of St Andrews and a lifelong fan of awesome music thanks to Janice Long.
Michelle J. Parker became the first female professional working blacksmith to be appointed as a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Blacksmiths in 2008. The first in fact in the Company’s over 700 year history since their incorporated by prescription in 1325, and a definite great achievement given the length of time the Company has existed.
Blacksmiths work primarily with steel to create wonderous objects from door knockers to gates, swords to armour, and everything in between. In Michelle’s words, ‘Most people see steel as being cold, hard and lifeless, but something encouraged Michelle to look beyond that and see what could be done when steel met fire. She soon discovered that steel took on a completely different character, no longer cold and lifeless, but full of life and movement.’1
Blacksmithing has long been a respected profession used throughout history, and they were treated with great importance and could sit at the head of the table when dining with royalty. The origins of the Worshipful Company of Blacksmiths are lost in time, however the first mention of them was in 1299 and they received their first Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I in 1571. Their earliest written records are dated from 1496. It is known that from the 1300’s to the Reformation, the Company was known as a Fraternity having strong religious connotations. The Patron Saint of the Fraternity was St. Loie who is a French Saint from the Limoges region and today is the Patron Saint of the Blacksmiths.2
One of our Visitor Services Supervisors, Sophie Belau-Conlon, had the honour to be able to chat to Michelle and find out more about her, her work, how she became a member and also the dangers of working with horses.
How did you become involved with the First Women project?
Well, Anita contacted me to be honest. How she found out about me, I don’t know, possibly something in the papers.
How did you become interested and involved in blacksmithing? What does it entail to become a blacksmith?
Madness, I think.
Do you want the longwinded story?
Yeah, I love stories. Stories are great.
I’ve got to cast my mind back now. When I first started working, as I didn’t really go to school, I started training as a stud groom, working with horses. But then I decided I wanted to get a house, and a car, and the things that you think that you need, and I thought, I’m never going to get it working with horses. So, I changed completely, and I went to work for social services.
That’s a big change.
Yeah, I worked for social services for 12/13 years and supposedly got the things I thought I needed. You know how it goes. Then I thought, right, I’m going to see if I can get a farrier apprenticeship and go back to horses. So, I got a farrier apprenticeship and rented my house out here and got a farrier apprenticeship in Beauly in Inverness. And went up there. And I would have been the first female farrier, at the time, as this was many moons ago. Long and short of it; I decided I didn’t actually want to spend the rest of my life, upside down smelling of foot rot.
So, while I was up there as my holidays were limited, I started making Christmas presents in the fire at night. I then packed that up, came back and I went down to Hereford College and I got on a course for a HND in 3 dimensional design in blacksmithing and metalwork. And worked for myself since then really.
Wow. That is a really nice kind of way! I did wonder if you had ever done any farrier work and looks hard going, especially with foot rot and everything else is not that appealing!
*laughs* Yeah and of course I was a little bit older than as well. Cos I didn’t start until, I must have been in my 30’s.
That gives me hope, as I’m my 30’s, to try different things.
You can do whatever you want, don’t be thinking 30 is too late. It was a complete career change for me. From young offenders to going to college, having hardly ever been to school. You can do whatever you want. Life’s too short. You don’t really realise life’s too short till you get too old.
What was the process to become appointed as one of the Liverymen of the Worshipful Company? Did someone approach you, or how did it go with your career from that?
Yeah, so I was just working for myself and was doing quite a few of the RHS garden shows. I was doing gates, and garden sculptures and I don’t know, water features. And the Worshipful Company approached me and asked me, I don’t know what they asked me. They approached me, so yeah, I was sworn in as a livery. That was a disaster as well!
Is there a story there as well? Just in case anyone had not seen what happened when you were sworn in.
I had gone into London the day before, so that I got there on time. I booked the taxi, presuming, it would be a black cab! But it wasn’t a black cab, and he didn’t have a clue where he was going! So I ended up getting him to stop on some bypass, getting out of the car and running across London. And I complete missed it, as I needed to get the Freedom of the City to start off with and there is a process in that, and you have to walk fairly slowly down the hall and of course I wanted to run, because I wanted to get to the Worshipful Company. So, when I did get there, everything had finished and I got sworn in in front of everybody, while the meal was happening, which has never happened in history and is probably a bit, well is obviously, unorthodox. But I’m glad they did.
And does it still entail anything, do they do things every year that you take part in? Are there any obligations?
Yeah, there are still awards and events that go on. I tend to go to the main awards, luncheons, when medals are being given out because that’s the time when mostly blacksmiths are there.
And then the Lord Mayor’s parade. We had a float for the parade a few years ago. They also do a lot of charitable work. So, we’ve done stuff for different trusts and made items.
And because I am a medal holder I can assess for awards and I am also a judge for the Worshipful Company.
And have you assessed people to get in?
Yeah, we have a criteria obviously, because the Worshipful Company is about keeping standards up. They do a lot of promoting people through and give out grants and funding. They do a lot of good things and promoting blacksmithing and people coming through. They also support blacksmiths in troubled times, such as if they cannot work, suffer bereavement or other unforeseen circumstances.
That’s amazing, and great to hear all the good things coming from such a long history of blacksmithing!
And the funny thing is, people think that there aren’t blacksmiths, and there are. There are quite a lot of us, we just don’t advertise. I know of none in the Worshipful Company or outside who advertise. Metalworkers maybe. Its word of mouth, isn’t it? If you do a good job, then it gets passed on to other people. In 30 odd years I’ve been going, I’ve not advertised at all, apart from, I’ve got my name on my van.
Oh, and then apart from going to the shows, the RHS shows and meeting and talking to people there. I suppose what I am trying to get to is, that it is a bit of a myth that there aren’t any blacksmiths about. There are, we are just a bit hidden.
Have there been any more women appointed into the Worshipful Company since?
Oh yeah, lots now, a lot of women have come through, really good women smiths. I was the first professional blacksmith Liverywoman, but now there are a lot of professional female smiths in the Livery.
That’s great, so you started it off.
Yeah, hopefully. Things have moved on and if I think about it, I haven’t experienced that much sexism but actually I have, you just forget about it. When I was younger, then now older looking back, things have really improved. The blacksmiths are not sexist, it’s more, the general public, than other colleagues.
As people think in their heads this traditional image of a blacksmith, a guy in his forge, and a woman turning up is not this stereotypical image.
That’s it. I can remember doing the shows, and men would come past, well and women, and say ‘isn’t your husband clever?’ And depending what mood I was in, I’d be like ‘yes he really was clever’ despite the fact I hadn’t got one. *laughs* I think they thought I was the secretary; I was just the saleswoman.
I’m at a loss for words and just hoping people have moved on since.
Women have always been involved, for instance, in Bromsgrove, most of the nail and chainmakers were women. During the war women would have been doing tons of stuff, then for some reason, we all disappeared again. Well, presumably they wanted the men to have the jobs. Women were doing everything, then all of a sudden, we weren’t.
I’ve got, hopefully, a nice easy question for you. Is there a particular stand out piece you have forged?
I’m laughing as nothing I ever do is ever good enough. Ever. I do something, think this is just going to be it, and it’s not. It’s never good enough. I mean that’s a bad thing and it’s a good thing. Cos other people think it is good enough, but I don’t.
You are restrained by budget and time. The older you get, the more you learn because you learn through experience. I’ve done some pieces I’m pleased with.
Believe it or not, I don’t draw. Everybody thinks you have to be able to draw, and I don’t draw. My drawing is diabolical. I know you can teach yourself to draw, but when I was at college, the lads, well I say the lads I was the only woman on the course. Their drawings were absolutely incredible and mine was absolutely dire. In a normal world with commissions, people see my style of work. Say I was making a gate, rather than draw it, if it had specific parts I wanted them to see, I would make up that part and show them, rather than draw it.
In terms of standout pieces, I do garden sculptures such as irises and lilies, they are quite popular and do actually look spectacular. So, I’m quite sort of pleased with some of those that I’ve done.
I’m winding down now, and the kids can come through and take my place.
What would a typical day at the forge look like for you? Is there a routine you have, or do you go in and make what you are making?
Well, life in the fire really. This time of year, freezing cold, going in and lighting the fire and I do draw on the floor. I might have to do some practice bits. If I am doing a bit of an experiment, I might literally do an experiment at the forge. What I’m trying to make, but a bit smaller. It’s messy. You can’t go to the forge and come back clean, it’s a physical impossibility. I spend most of my life absolutely covered in soot, dust and metal.
And everything in-between! I guess then come home and have a shower and wind down.
God no! I have to have a bath. A shower is no good. I have to have a bath and shower after the bath to get clean. *laughs*
We touched on it, but my last question was if you had any advice for any women who would like to follow in your footsteps and forge a career in blacksmithing.
Go for it! Don’t let anything hold you back.
Thank you so much! This has been great and really appreciate your time to talk today and get to know the person behind the photograph.
First Women is now open until 8th January 2023 at the Wardlaw Museum and the Laidlaw Music Centre; where you will find the portrait of Michelle displayed.
First Women UK by Anita Corbin. 100 Portraits of 100 First Women to celebrate 100 years of women’s right to vote, created by photographer Anita Corbin over a decade and launched in 2018.3
Written by Sophie Belau-Conlon, Visitor Services Supervisor and Retail and Operations Officer for the Libraries and Museums team at the University of St Andrews.
Today we look at the life and works of Rachel Whiteread, renowned British artist and the first woman to win the Turner Prize. Having been previously nominated for her work Ghost (1990), Rachel Whiteread won the Turner Prize for her art installation House in 1993. The Turner Prize began in 1984 and awards one artist from a shortlist with a bursary to extend their practice. Rachel Whiteread’s sculptures are forged using the technique of casting, utilising materials such as plaster, concrete, resin, rubber and metals to solidify inside custom made casts which reflect themes of domestic life and negative space to create large scale impressions.
Born in 1960s Ilford, Whiteread’s upbringing played a significant role in her future success as an artist. The youngest daughter of a geography teacher father and an artist mother, the combined impressions of her mother utilising the family home as a studio and her father encouraging an appreciation for the intricacies of architecture led Rachel Whiteread to pursue art which focuses on the intersections between architecture, spatiality, and memory.
Upon finishing school, Rachel Whiteread enrolled on a foundation course then painting at Brighton Polytechnic before embarking on a Sculpture degree at Slade School of Art, London graduating in 1987. This formal education introduced Whiteread to casting techniques which would become the crux of her works and artistic career, including working under British sculptor and fellow Turner Prize nominee Richard Wilson.
Whilst traditional cast sculpture tends to create replicas of objects, Whiteread’s works instead cast the negative space inside or around everyday forms, ranging from boxes and furniture up to staircases and entire rooms. By allowing the shape of empty spaces to determine the form of her sculpture, she transforms the mundane into colossal pieces of art which express the human influence on our built environment.
Creating the Turner Prize winning House was a lengthy and complicated process. Using a derelict Victorian Terraced house as a mould, a cast was made from the interior by spraying a skin of liquid concrete around the metal framework which supported the weight of the sculpture. It took over a month to coat the house with liquid concrete and an additional ten days were required for the concrete to cure and set. House is the largest singular piece of work Rachel Whitehead has produced, but she has continued to create works which provoke conversation and push the boundaries of contemporary art. Though physically impressive, House proved divisive and stood at Grove Road, East London from November 1993 to January 1994 when it was demolished by Tower Hamlets London Borough Council after 80 days.
Since winning the Turner Prize in 1993, Whiteread’s work has continued to explore themes of negative space, and transforming aspects of domestic life into a series of sculptural pieces exhibited worldwide. Of particular note is Whiteread’s striking Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial, or The Nameless Library, in Vienna. Unveiled in 2000, the piece represents a room full of books turned inward; becoming nameless and identical to one another to convey the systematic destruction of Jewish individuals in World War II.
Following the unexpected death of their mother in 2003, Rachel and her sisters were faced with sorting out their mother’s belongings amidst their grieving. It was through this process that Rachel Whiteread gained inspiration to begin casting the space inside boxes, such as in her largescale installation Embankment. Situated in Tate Modern’s Turbine Hall from 2005-6, Embankment consisted of a series of 14,000 polyethylene casts made from cardboard boxes stacked and spread throughout the vast gallery space. Whiteread’s work touches on hints of human life and its interference with static objects, with Embankment being yet another example of contemporary art which is both psychically impressive yet emotive at its core.
In recognition of her inspiring artistic practice, in 2006, Rachel Whiteread was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) then Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) in the 2019 Birthday Honours for services to art.
Today, Rachel Whiteread continues to work as an artist from her home studio in East London. Her works are held in the collections of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., and the Tate Gallery in London. Still proving popular, she was the recipient of 2022 Robson Orr TenTen Award by the Government Art Collection (GAC) for her print Untitled (Bubble) 2022.
First Women UK by Anita Corbin
100 Portraits of 100 First Women to celebrate 100 years of women’s right to vote, created by photographer Anita Corbin over a decade and launched in 2018.
The year was 1975. Margaret Thatcher had just become the new Tory party leader and the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. Angela Rippon, unbeknownst to herself at the time, was also about to become a ‘first woman’. Covering the regular newsreader – who was on holiday – Angela stepped in to read BBC1’s Nine O’Clock News, breaking Thatcher’s victory to the nation and subsequently landing a permanent newsreading role on the show. Rippon herself is eager to point out that she was not the first ever female television newsreader, crediting her predecessors Barbara Mandell and Nan Winton, but, quite significantly, she was the first female journalist to take on the role. She was also the first to be made permanent, staying in the role for five years, and winning Newsreader of the Year for three of those years.
Rippon was born in Plymouth, Devon in 1944, and it was here that she had her first foray into journalism. Aged 17, she left school to join Plymouth’s Sunday paper, the Independent, as a junior reporter. Four years later, aged just 21, Angela was reporting for BBC South West’s TV news division. By the time she broke the news of Thatcher’s victory, Angela was an experienced newsreader, writer and producer, however this was her first step into the national spotlight.
Only a few years later, Angela’s position as a national personality was cemented by her infamous appearance on The Morecambe and Wise Christmas Show, where she appeared to be sitting behind the BBC news desk, only to step out and perform a high-kicking dance routine. Rippon had trained as a ballerina before her journalism career began, and would go on to present Come Dancing – the famous predecessor of Strictly Come Dancing – and chair the English National Ballet in 2000.
Angela Rippon’s career so far has been truly varied. Most people today would think of Jeremy Clarkson as the first host of Top Gear, but no – Angela beat him to it in 1977. Amongst many other titles, Angela also hosted Antiques Roadshow, The Eurovision Song Contest, Cash in the Attic and Rip Off Britain.
In 1983, she was among the first presenters of Good Morning Britain, (alongside the likes of Michael Parkinson) however due to internal disagreements at the station, she was dismissed. Rippon spent a precarious year looking for work, before she was asked to travel across the pond and become the Arts and Entertainment Correspondent for WNEV-TV, a network in Boston. This restored her confidence and crucially, her career. Rippon’s career also included the presenting of The Big Breakfast, Watchdog: Healthcheck and In The Country as well as the hosting of the popular quiz shows What’s My Line? and Masterteam. In 1990, she landed her own radio show on LBC, Breakfast with Angela Rippon. 2004 also saw the beginning of her ITV News programme Live with Angela Rippon.
Angela has shown her support for countless charities and causes over the years, most notably the Alzheimers Society. Rippon had personal experience of caring for her mother Edna, who was diagnosed in 2004. The late Queen Elizabeth II awarded Rippon the title of Commander of the Order of the British Empire in her 2017 New Years Honours for her services to the area, including her role as development lead for the Dementia Friendly Communities. She also went on to produce a documentary titled The Truth About Dementia with the BBC.
Rippon has commentated on some of the British royal family’s biggest moments, including the wedding of King Charles III to the late Diana, Princess of Wales, and of Prince Harry to Meghan Markle, now the Duchess of Sussex. This is a testament to her role as a national TV icon. She currently lends her voice to the gameshow The Wall, with Danny Dyer. However, some 50 years on, it seems Angela cannot stay away from the news desk; aged 78, you can now find her regularly presenting for GB News.
First Women UK by Anita Corbin.100 Portraits of 100 First Women to celebrate 100 years of women’s right to vote, created by photographer Anita Corbin over a decade and launched in 2018.
Written by Sarah Coller, Visitor Services Facilitator and MLitt student in the School of Art History of the University of St Andrews.
Louise Goodman is known as one the first female faces of Formula 1, having been involved in motorsport media since the late 1980s and becoming a familiar sight along the Formula 1 pit lane. Her first appearance was in the 1988 Mexican Grand Prix through PR duties with Camel, then a Formula 1 Sponsor. Following this, she was the Press Officer for Leyton House Formula 1 Team, before heading the Communications department at the Jordan Grand Prix Racing Team between 1992 and 1996. She rose to fame as a pit lane reporter for ITV when they had the rights to show Formula 1 races in the UK between 1997 and 2008. She was also active behind the wheel, competing in several rally races. Now, she has her own media company, Goodman Media, and continues to present at ITV for the British Touring Car Championship.
Louise Goodman became the first woman to take part in a Formula 1 Pit Stop in the 2006 British Grand Prix when she was in charge of taking the rear left wheel off Tiago Monteiro’s car, whilst he was driving for Midland. This was for an ITV feature which took a closer look at the car and the mechanics, and so Louise decided to be involved in a pit stop directly. Originally, she trained with Honda for several months and was supposed to take off Jenson Button’s rear left wheel, but a week before the race, she received a call saying Honda had changed their mind about including her in the pit stop. Luckily, she contacted Midland (who were previously Jordan Grand Prix) and they accepted. Incidentally, Button never made it to his first pit stop as he suffered an oil leak. Formula 1 cars can be very different across manufacturers, so she had to retrain on the Midland M16 car in just one week. Goodman was undeniably nervous – things could easily go wrong, and she did not want to let the team down. Working on the technical side of motorsport is fast-paced and the importance of functioning as one body in the team is imperative. Monteiro’s pit stop was brief and successful.
Throughout her career, Goodman has managed media coverage for multiple car manufacturers, sponsors, and drivers, including Mika Hakkinen, Martin Brundle, Eddie Irvine, Rubens Barrichello, and more. Back when she started in the 80s, media coverage for Formula 1 was considerably a lesser affair, with perhaps one or two people responsible for PR and media. Since then, media coverage has grown considerably and so have the racing teams. However, the number of women is still relatively low. Whilst she was a pit lane reporter with ITV’s Formula 1 coverage, she worked alongside James Allen, Ted Kravitz, and Martin Brundle – names which are still connected to Formula 1, yet she was the only woman in the core media team. Traditionally, women in motorsport were involved more in marketing and press operations, although recently, there have been more women involved in the technical side. But is the number of women in motorsport high enough?
Picturing today’s Formula 1 grid, it is obvious that this is still a male-dominated sport. The first woman to compete in a Formula 1 Race was Maria Teresa De Filippis in 1958, whilst the last one, at the time of writing, was Giovanna Amati in 1992. Lella Lombardi remains the only woman to score points in Formula 1 in 1975. Other women have participated as test and development drivers. Most notably, Scottish driver Susie Wolff tested in 2012 with Williams, the first female appearance in a Formula 1 race weekend in 22 years, and Jamie Chadwick in 2019, again with Williams. Chadwick later won the W Series championship three years in a row. The W Series is the all-female single-seater racing championship counterpart to Formula 1. Yet, this year’s championship was cut two-races short due to financial difficulties, indicating that unfortunately, this championship does not have enough interest to generate the amount of budgeting and sponsorship that Formula 1 attracts. The W Series has also received backlash from opponents who argue that rather than encouraging the admission of female racers in established series, this championship is segregating women.
Ultimately, for more women to be involved in motorsport, there needs to be a bigger push from an earlier age. Most women involved in motorsport have family connections. The majority of drivers, men included, start their careers thanks to parents who take them karting at a young age. Yet not many parents would think of taking their daughter go-karting. On the technical side, the mechanics are chosen from some of the best available, and unfortunately, the pool is still very male-dominated. HESA reports that in the 2020/21 academic year, 20% of engineering students in Higher Education were female . In addition, WES reports that women make up 16.5% of the people employed in engineering roles in the UK . Although increasing, there is still more to be done to encourage equal opportunities in engineering and STEM across the genders.
Women like Louise Goodman are essential to encouraging more girls to develop an interest in motorsport. Together with Susie Wolff’s Dare to Be Different organisation, Goodman has been involved in the FIA Girls on Track initiative which aims to promote all the different roles that are available in motorsport. It helps young women experience motorsport and increase their confidence. Hannah Schmitz, Red Bull Racing’s current Principal Strategy Engineer is an example of how women can get to the top spots of motorsport with dedication and confidence. Working in motorsport, and especially succeeding at its pinnacle in Formula 1, requires hard work and commitment; it becomes a way of life with races during weekends, all over the world. Nevertheless, it can be an extremely rewarding career and it is inspiring to see these successful women, despite their low numbers.
First Women is now open at the Wardlaw Museum and the Laidlaw Music Centre.
First Women UK by Anita Corbin. 100 Portraits of 100 First Women to celebrate 100 years of women’s right to vote, created by photographer Anita Corbin over a decade and launched in 2018.
Written by Sharon Pisani, Visitor Services Facilitator and PhD student in the School of Computer Science of the University of St Andrews
Shared stories, whether spoken, written, sung or filmed are what give a sense of place, history and belonging. Having originated as a holy site for pilgrims to visit the relics of St Andrew, allegedly buried at the cathedral in medieval times, the town of St Andrews has sustained and developed its ongoing global significance through education, discovery, sport and religion. This historic town has thousands of stories to tell, many of which can be uncovered right here in the Wardlaw Museum.
St Andrews’ Wardlaw Museum acts as a vessel for storytelling. Visitors can expect to learn about the foundation, traditions and innovations of Scotland’s oldest university and its students as they traverse through the galleries. Among the displays are documents of Willa Muir, a St Andrews graduate who translated over 40 books, including the works of Franz Kafka. An accomplished linguist and novelist, Willa Muir’s works were an important part of the Scottish Renaissance literary movement which pursued an exploration of identity and engaging with social and political issues. However, literature is not the only way in which stories can be told.
Our display of 70 archery medals highlights the competitive side of St Andrews students in an artform that was popular from the 1618 to 1754 but has now fallen out of favour. Each medal is unique and when displayed collectively shows an important part of the University’s history exemplifying how traditions have developed and waned over the course of 600 years.
Whilst the museum itself focuses on storytelling, the Wardlaw also celebrates two renowned writers who acted as rector: Scottish author of Peter Pan, JM Barrie, and Monty Python member and Fawlty Towers creator John Cleese. Here lies proof that storytelling and imagination are so powerful they can lead to great honour, fame, and responsibility!
Undoubtedly, there are innumerable ways to communicate stories, particularly considering the long and varied past St Andrews has as a center of religious reform, education and innovation. As the old saying goes ‘A picture is worth a thousand words’ and one of the most striking pieces on permanent display is the painting of the murder of Archbishop Sharp. Opie’s striking painting depicts a dramatic retelling of a gruesome murder just outside of St Andrews in 1679, as part of the long running rivalry between Presbyterian and Catholic religious groups. The dramatic and elegant framing of an otherwise violent scene shows how stories can become distorted by different viewpoints and even recontextualised by societal change.
Sometimes simply examining an object may unlock scientific insight and discoveries which help interpret our understanding of the world we live in. Galleries two and three showcase some of St Andrews University’s feats in scientific innovation and discovery.
Conversely, storytelling sometimes comes through cautionary tales, such as those surrounding colonial collecting (from which the Wardlaw is not exempt). As museums became popular in the 1700s, many European explorers raced to fill them with interesting objects and unfamiliar specimens. Unfortunately, this practice was not sustainable or particularly ethical, damaging ecosystems and causing uproar throughout affected communities. Fortunately, steps are being taken to research and recontextualise certain objects, particularly through Wardlaw’s Recollecting Empire exhibition, which addresses key themes and objects which represent the presence of colonialism and empire within the museum.
Interpretation is an important part of museum curation, telling the stories of individual objects to understand Scotland’s collective history and understand how these tales have helped shaped the nation today. Visit Scotland’s ‘Year of Stories’ presents the opportunity for every part of Scotland to tell its story and capture imagination.
Wardlaw museum offers two different Smartify tours which can be enjoyed within the museum or at home. One, essential St Andrews and the other Collections highlights tell the stories of key objects from the museum’s vast collection. Don’t forget to get involved and share your own stories through #TalesOfScotland on social media!
Which is the oldest museum you’ve ever been to? Have you ever been inside a teaching museum? The University of St Andrews has an active teaching museum: its natural history museum. The Bell Pettigrew Museum was opened in 1912 and still houses a vast collection of specimens and instruments. The museum has been a teaching museum since Edwardian times, and students and staff can still visit to observe the artefacts. The museum is also open for public visits over the summer, Autumn and Spring holidays.
James Bell Pettigrew was a Professor of Anatomy at the University of St Andrews and was a pioneer of early flying machines. His seminal work, Animal Locomotion: or Walking, Swimming and Flying, influenced future naturalists and informed his invention of an early flying machine. He died in 1908, and it was actually his wife, Elsie Gray, who founded the Bell Pettigrew Museum after his death. James Bell Pettigrew served as curator of the University’s natural history collection which was moved into this museum after it was completed.
Located in the quaint St Mary’s Quad, the whole building is rather special. Upon entering, I stepped onto the mosaic floors which welcomed me and gave me a sense of being in another world, unlike any other building in St Andrews. Through the interior wooden doors, mounted heads of deer, elk, and other herbivores make up the first striking grand display. I immediately felt like I had gone back in time to the early twentieth century as I walked amongst the museum’s traditional displays and cases.
The collection is vast; there are fossils, skeletons, and embalmed animals, but also scientific instruments, drawings, and photographs. The sheer level of organisation of such a collection is striking. Floor-to-ceiling cabinets are full of specimens, neatly labelled, and sorted according to their place in the animal kingdom. Many of the specimens are of Victorian origin, some in their original jars with handwritten labels, adding to the historical charm of the place.
One can easily spend hours observing the collection, but for those a little bit tighter on time, the Smartify app includes two fifteen-minute audio tours, one highlighting extinct animals, and the other about animals of Scotland. I listened to the latter one, and as I stood in front of the animals and learnt about them, I couldn’t help but remember other times when I had seen these animals during my time in Scotland.
I remembered the windy day in June when I had taken the ferry to the Isle of May and gazed in wonder at the hundreds of Atlantic Puffins standing on the cliffs. I spotted many diving off the rocks and feeding on a variety of herring and fish, sometimes indulging in five or six at one go.
I remembered the cold, rainy day, when driven by a desire to get into the Christmas spirit, I took the bus to the Scottish Deer Centre where a Christmas market was being organised. Nothing could make me feel like I’d stepped into a Christmas card more than watching deer, elks, and reindeers, animals which are not native in my home country. Amongst the other animals, I spotted the Scottish Wildcat, unafraid of the rain as it perched above its shelter in its enclosure. Definitely not the scary wildcat the Victorians had taxidermized and preserved in front of my eyes.
Hearing about the grey seal, my memories harkened back to the time I visited the island of North Uist, and whilst on Berneray, drove to the Seal Viewing Point, where I saw around twenty grey and common seals, lounging on the coast, observing the day going by and waiting for the tide to come up and refresh them.
I heard about the European Badger and recalled a memory of riding my bicycle home after a night out with friends. Passing by the Lade Braes, I heard a loud scurrying sound, before a shadow crossed the road, hit my bike’s front wheel with considerable force, and crossed on into the darkness of the woods. The shock from this strange encounter lasted longer than the encounter itself, but despite not seeing the animal properly, I can still recollect seeing the distinctive black and white stripes flash before my eyes. I had seen my first ever badger in the wild.
Listening about more animals and seeing them on the display, I was excited to think about what other adventures I will go on to have in Scotland and what stories I will remember in some distant day in the future. Museums can truly bring their collections alive, not just through the exhibition, but through the memories that are awakened in the visitor’s mind. And what better stories to remember, than those involving our time with people, our interactions with animals, and our place living in nature. See what memories come alive at Bell Pettigrew Museum and share your own stories through #TalesOfScotland on social media!
The Bell Pettigrew Museum is open over the Autumn holidays from 10th – 21st October, Monday to Friday from 13:00-17:00. The audio tours can be accessed through the following links or by downloading the Smartify app.
Visitors entering the State Rooms of the University of St Andrews are currently confronted exclusively with oil portraits of the University’s past principals and chancellors. To diversify the exhibition, the University Museums and the School of Art History initiated a collaboration: students of the module “The Portrait in Western Art”, under the supervision of Dr Elsje van Kessel, proposed works to update the exhibition. This text is the shortened version of my proposal. I suggest adding seven photographs to the exhibition – six portraits of pioneers of early photography and one self-portrait of the photographer Franki Raffles (1955–1994). These objects are among the highlights of the roughly 30,000 prestigious photographs in the University museum’s art collection.
The first set of photographs shows prominent members of an intellectual circle of photographers and scientists in St Andrews, which developed under the leadership of Sir David Brewster (1781–1868), back then principal of the United Colleges of St Andrews University. Brewster knew William Henry Fox Talbot (1800–1877), the inventor of a photographic process called calotype, and encouraged his circle to master this highly complex process and to refine Talbot’s invention through collaboratively conducted experiments. Since Brewster persuaded Talbot that patenting his invention in Scotland would be unprofitable, the St Andrews community could experiment with Talbot’s invention for free. The calotype was also a matter of scientific publications. Many pioneers were members of scientific associations like the British Association for the Advancement of Science and the St Andrews Literary and Philosophical society. Most of these personalities held prestigious positions at the University. For instance, James David Forbes (1809–1868) succeeded Brewster as the principal of the United Colleges, Dr John Adamson was a doctor and chemistry professor (1809–1870), and Hugh Lyon Playfair (1787–1861) the University provost.
Images Courtesy of the University of St Andrews Libraries and Museums
In contrast to these amateur photographers, other personalities were University alumni who decided to work as professional photographers – among the first world-wide! One of them, Robert Adamson (1821–1848), produced artistically important photographs in his Edinburgh studio in collaboration with the painter David Octavius Hill (1802–1870). A second photographer, Thomas Rodger (1832–1883), opened a purpose-built professional studio in St Andrews in 1849, nowadays housing the University’s Careers Centre. The selected photographs commemorate these pioneering figures and provide examples of early portraits produced with the calotype process.
I propose to juxtapose this set of photographs with a self-portrait by the feminist photographer Franki Raffles. Raffles, born in England, studied philosophy at the University ofSt Andrews starting in 1973. During her studies, she took a leading role in the local group of the Women’s Liberation Movement. As a member of this group, she fought against gender inequalities within the University and proposed radical changes to the movement’s organisation and aims. After her degree, Raffles taught herself the art of photography and worked in Edinburgh as a freelance photographer. In the 1980s and early 1990s, she travelled through Scotland and Asia to document the harsh realities of women’s everyday lives and thus raise public awareness of the everyday problems of women. In 1992, she led the “Zero Tolerance campaign”, a successful initiative against domestic violence. For this project, she designed posters including photographs of women in apparently normal domestic environments but bearing inscriptions indicating that these women were victims of abuse. Why is Raffles’ link to St Andrews important for understanding her art? Although Raffles was not yet acquainted with photography during her studies, in St Andrews she developed many of the feminist ideals which later pervaded her photography. On 17 October, photographer and St Andrews alumna Franki Raffles would have turned 67 years old.
Raffles’ self-portrait would add another aspect to the display. It stands for female empowerment, as it depicts Raffles in the act of taking her own picture. As a result, she retains control over her identity and is not objectified. Furthermore, juxtaposing the portrait of one woman with those of six men would visualise the historical gender imbalance at St Andrews University. In fact, for centuries women were not accepted at the University as students, let alone as professors or principals. Likewise, the portraits of personalities from Brewster’s circle include only men. Although women actively participated in the early development of photography, they were forced into less prominent roles than men due to social conventions. For instance, they were active in scientific associations but could not become official members, and they often worked as assistants of male photographers without being acknowledged.
The proposed selection of photographs would also diversify the artistic mediums represented in the current exhibition. This would allow visitors to compare the oil paintings in the State rooms with the newly added photographs. For instance, Brewster would be shown in both media. Formally, the representations are similar, with Brewster sitting on a majestic chair, along with books symbolising his erudition, and holding glasses in his hand, a possible allusion to his scientific contributions in the field of optics. But there are differences too: Brewster’s individual characteristics stand out more clearly in the photograph than in the oil painting. At the time, calotypes were usually taken outside, where the sun provided enough natural light. As a result, photographs often featured a spotlight on the depicted figure, which here highlights the details of the sitter’s face and hands. Moreover, the portraits differ in scale. While the oil painting is large and majestic, the photograph is small and more intimate. The new medium would then also allow showing new facets of Brewster’s personality. In the current context of the State Rooms, Brewster’s oil portrait honours him in his role as a principal. In the context of other pioneers of early photography, Brewster’s portrait would commemorate his additional role as a scientific leader and promoter of photography.
The State Rooms are meant to represent the University. The proposed display would provide a more comprehensive picture of its history, indicating its pioneering role in the early history of photography. And why not enjoy the contrast between majestic oil paintings and intimate photographs?
Written by Francesco Alessandrini Lupia, 4th-year student in the School of Art History of the University of St Andrews